The Vanadium Redox Flow Battery
The Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (or ‘VRB’), is revolutionising the energy storage industry the world over.
Vanadium Redox Batteries (VRB’s) are rapidly becoming the battery of choice for efficient large-scale renewable energy storage. VRB’s have been proven to provide reliable storage of large quantities of renewable generated energy.
Key aspects of the Vanadium Redox Battery include:
- a lifespan of 20 years with up to 20,000 cycles and no capacity loss
- proven scalability use in large MW applications
- high long-term charge retention
- excellent safety rating and non-flammable
- can discharge to 100% with no impact on performance or components.
What is Vanadium and how is it Used
For decades Vanadium’s primary use was as a strengthening additive in manufacture of rebar, structural steel and titanium alloys. In recent times vanadium’s use has expanded to include vanadium redox batteries (VRB’s), automotive and aircraft parts.
High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel with vanadium is the steel of choice for infrastructure projects. As the global infrastructure boom continues to expand, strong demand for these steels and vanadium will continue.
Vanadium is a hard, silvery grey, ductile and malleable speciality metal with a resistance to corrosion, high structural strength and resistance against alkalis, acids and salt water – making this one of the most special and sort after minerals in the world.
What is High Purity Alumina (HPA)
High Purity Alumina (HPA) is a purified form of alumina (Al2O3).
- The market for HPA is based on differing grades from 99.5% to 99.999%.
- Purity is determined by the extent of trace elements contained in the alumina. The purity determines the market price.
- Used in LEDs and lithium-ion batteries. The EV market is expected to drive demand growth for HPA more than any other battery metal.
- 30% CAGR demand growth – 272,000 tpa by 2028
- Significant supply deficit commencing 2019
Steel Alloy Manufacturing
Historically, 90% of vanadium produced has gone into the steel making process.
A small amount of vanadium added during the steel making process greatly increases the strength of steel – even by up to 100%. So important is the use of vanadium in the steel making process, in recent months Governments have mandated an increase in the amount of vanadium to be included in rebar to increase strength in areas of high seismic activity.
With the ever increasing demand for steel in the building and industrial industries, demand will remain high for vanadium in this original marketplace.
Shipping, Aviation and Aerospace Applications
Due to the amazing qualities of vanadium, it is the mineral of choice in manufacturing of jet engines and high-speed airframes in the aerospace industry.
Vanadium titanium alloy is non-replaceable in this application.
The future of Vanadium
Vanadium is the little known mineral with a massive future. As we focus our energy into the production of vanadium for large scale industrial applications, we can facilitate the development of large renewable energy projects the world over. The issue with solar and wind energy projects is the unreliability of power supply due to weather conditions, a commercial scale storage solution changes the energy mix, and makes renewables a large part of a lower carbon future.
The emerging renewable energy storage industry (VRB’s) and expanding global infrastructure spending will see the demand for vanadium continue to significantly grow over the coming years.
There are already concerns over vanadium supply availability for the growing VRB industry. For example, the VRB installation in Dalian, China was approximately 3.8% of current global demand.
The vanadium price has recently experienced a significant rise due to increased demand from vanadium redox batteries and increased requirements for hardening rebar. The future significant demand growth will be driven by VRB’s resulting in price increases as seen in other battery metals.
Recent installations in China demonstrate the application of vanadium redox batteries for commercial and industrial scale applications.
An example, the Rongke Power development in Dalian, China:
- a 200MW/800MWh battery
- used ~6,960 tonnes V2O5 – The V2O5 usage for this one battery equates to 3.8% of the current global demand.
- The VRB battery has a lifespan of over 20+ years with very high cycle life and no capacity loss.
- can discharge to 100% with no loss or reduction in performance
- excellent long-term charge retention
- Rapid recharge and discharge, fast response time <70ms